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"All of the music for the first rehearsal [with new students], including warm-up drills, should be in the folders. . ."(Gattiker 86)

"If the warm-up includes drills in the keys of the selections to be rehearsed, the intonation is likely to improve. The players, through these warm-ups, get the key established in their minds and the matter of tonality becomes the focal point. This is essential for good intonation."(Gattiker 99)

"There are times when it is useful to sing a passage (if within the voice range) before playing it. If they can sing it, they can usually play it in tune. If this has been included in their early training, there is less embarrassment."(Gattiker 99)





Many directors utilize different methodologies for determining their warm-up exercises. Personally, I for this project, I consulted David Baker's Jazz Pedagogy, Bollinger's Band Director's Complete Handbook, Janzen's Band Director's Survival Guide, and the Complete Book of Rehearsal Techniques for the High School Orchestra. Additionally, I consulted Prof. Wilber England on how to address the percussion section during warm-ups.

(All warm-ups should be handed out or written on the board)

Middle School (Beginning Concert Band)

All exercises should be both perform on instruments and sung as well. They should also be performed with different rhythms and articulation.While there is some apprehension, particularly for males, their apprehension will be relieved if you sing along, expect singing every day, and most importantly be honest with them about why you're doing it. The reasons I have for singing through warm-ups include satisfying the MENC national standards(K-12), improving intonation, building confidence, and possibly encouraging some more students to participate in choir as well.

The exercises below consist of some of the exercises that I would most likely use and how they would correspond to the music.

-long tone exercises for proper breathing and intonation

-I would utilize this exercise as soon as we could each establish a tone on the given instrument because it instantly helps encourage proper breathing even if intonation is not yet a pertinent issue(in beginning band it wouldn't be, however, with second year students it might be something you start to work on)

*During long tone exercises, percussion students should play either a scale(or fragment) that fits over the top of the ensemble's notes or arpeggio exercises. As many percussion students as possible should be playing on a mallet instrument.(WTE) -two students to a xylophone -three students to a marimba (four if we own a five-oct.) -one student on concert bells -two students per vibraphone -students that do not have an instrument to play should sing the long-tone exercise

Percussion students will suggest that during this time they need to be setting up, however, middle school pieces usually do not require immense amounts of set-up time, therefore I expect students to be prepared ready to play at the beginning of class like every one else. (WTE)







-scales that are pertinent to the day's rehearsal -if we only play in B-flat and F MAJ then warm-up on these scales -this will help avoid blown key signatures and allow time for reinforcement of key signature fundamentals (BEAD GCF) -this exercise should be performed in the range that is required of the player within the piece -scales should be tested outside of class (if possible) and students should be held accountable for these fundamentals *Percussion should follow this exercise as written, however, if there is an advanced student on mallets, you may have them perform scales in octaves. Again, students who do not play a mallet instrument should sing the exercise

-articulation exercises

-in the beginning students the only exercises that will probably be applicable would be legato and staccato (use imagery and focus on explaining the sound desired more than the mechanics involved with producing the sound) -use scales and arpeggios as a vehicle for articulations -take slightly slower than regular scales *When using this exercise, point out important spots where this articulation is used *With the percussion students, students play the exercise on timpani or have them sing demonstrating the articulation

-arpeggios -use arpeggios which correspond to the day' scales -have them start playing arpeggios through all inversions (when range and development allows)*This last step may not be possible on all inst.

*percussionists should play the exercise as listed, however, advanced students should attempt playing arpeggios (if at a slow tempo) in octaves. If they don't have an instrument to play, then they should sing the arpeggios as their vocal range allows.

These are the four basic warm-ups that I have included for now. These all translate to jazz band which I will discuss next, however, scales, articulations, and arpeggios may involve expanded vocabulary due to the improvisatory nature of the music.

Middle School Jazz Band

-long tone *Percussionists should either play time over this exercise or play a scalar exercise or arpeggiation exercise over the band's long tones. DO NOT let percussionists sit around when they can be learning!(WTE)

-scales Added scales at some point during high school would include all minors, mixolydian, dorian, blues, and dominant scales

*percussion can play vibes and marimba -three per marimba two per vibraphone

-articulation exercises

-I may need to add marcato at this point *Percussion play keyboard instruments

-circle of fifths patterns (Baker 129-131) *Dependant on skill level for more difficult exercises) -"each band members also receives a sheet of chord voicings, with detailed instructions for their use. . . . spend at least twenty minutes of each two-hour [after school] rehearsal doing special music exercises" (Baker 129) *Percussion play keyboard instruments

-arpeggios -are included within the circle of fifth exercise on the 7th chord arpeggiation section

Keyboard playing for percussionists is emphasized as opposed to drum-set during warm-ups because students tend to be more apt to play drum-set and need to be exposed to the melodic content of keyboard music.







High School Concert Band



All exercises should be both perform on instruments and sung as well. They should also be performed with different rhythms and articulations. Singing, by this point, should be well engrained into their rehearsal practice, therefore, no apprehension should be evident in the students. The reasons I have for singing through warm-ups include satisfying the MENC national standards(K-12), improving intonation, building confidence, and possibly encouraging some more students to participate in choir as well.

The exercises below consist of some of the exercises that I would most likely use and how they would correspond to the music.(At this point, I would start to point students to some specific method books that they could use for personal warm-ups. (ie Klose, Moyse, Arbans etc.)

-long tone exercises for proper breathing and intonation

-I would utilize this exercise as soon as we could each establish a tone on the given instrument because it instantly helps encourage proper breathing and allows for easy detection and correction of intonation problems

*During long tone exercises, percussion students should play either a scale that fits over the top of the ensemble's notes or arpeggio exercises. As many percussion students as possible should be playing on a mallet instrument.(WTE) -two students to a xylophone -three students to a marimba (four if we own a five-oct.) -one student on concert bells -two students per vibraphone -students that do not have an instrument to play should sing the long-tone exercise

Percussion students will suggest that during this time they need to be setting up, however, high school pieces usually do not require immense amounts of set-up time, therefore I expect students to be prepared ready to play at the beginning of class like every one else. (WTE)







-scales that are pertinent to the day's rehearsal -if we only play in B-flat and F MAJ then warm-up on these scales -this will help avoid blown key signatures and allow time for reinforcement of key signature fundamentals (BEAD GCF) -this exercise should be performed in the range that is required of the player within the piece -scales should be tested outside of class (if possible) and students should be held accountable for these fundamentals *Percussion should follow this exercise as written, however, students by this time should be able to perform scales in octaves. Again, students who do not play a mallet instrument should sing the exercise

-articulation exercises

-in the high school students students the only exercises that will probably be applicable would be legato, staccato, marcato, and accents (use imagery and focus on explaining the sound desired more than the mechanics involved with producing the sound) -use scales and arpeggios as a vehicle for articulations -take slightly slower than regular scales *When using this exercise, point out important spots where this articulation is used *With the percussion students, students play the exercise on timpani or have them sing demonstrating the articulation

-arpeggios -use arpeggios which correspond to the day' scales -have them play through all inversions

*percussionists should play the exercise as listed, however, advanced students should attempt playing arpeggios in octaves. Also, blocked and broken for percussion here. If they don't have an instrument to play, then they should sing the arpeggios as their vocal range allows.

These are the four basic warm-ups that I have included for now. These all translate to jazz band which I will discuss next, however, scales, articulations, and arpeggios may involve expanded vocabulary due to the improvisatory nature of the music.





High School Jazz Band



-long tone *Percussionists should either play time over this exercise or play a scalar exercise or arpeggiation exercise over the band's long tones. DO NOT let percussionists sit around when they can be learning!(WTE)

-scales Added scales at some point during high school would include diminished, lydian dominant, lydian augmented, augmented, whole tone, locrian, and phrygian

*percussion can play vibes and marimba -three per marimba two per vibraphone

-have students (once somewhat familiar with scales) follow Baker's suggestion on page 135 in his jazz pedagogy book. (Sing a note, play 1, sing two, play 1, sing two, play 1, And make sure when descending the scale that you play the notes you sang before and sing the notes that you played before)

-chord/scale exercises

-give students a starting note, then play a chord using the note given as the lowest, they will then identify the chord and play the corresponding scale (start with easy ones, major, dominant, dorian, etc.). Reinforce the chord/scale relationship

*percussion on keyboards



-articulation exercises

-same as high school concert band (swung rhythms however, in warm-ups) *Percussion play keyboard instruments

-circle of fifths patterns (Baker 129-131) *Dependant on skill level for more difficult exercises) -"each band members also receives a sheet of chord voicings, with detailed instructions for their use. . . . spend at least twenty minutes of each two-hour [after school] rehearsal doing special music exercises" (Baker 129) *Percussion play keyboard instruments

-arpeggios -are included within the circle of fifth exercise on the 7th chord arpeggiation section

Keyboard playing for percussionists is emphasized as opposed to drum-set during warm-ups because students tend to be more apt to play drum-set and need to be exposed to the melodic content of keyboard music.